The role of agriculture in the economy
The role of agriculture in the economy of a country or region shows the structure and level of development agricultural productivity. As indicators of the role of agriculture use the share of employment in agriculture among the economically active population, as well as the share of agriculture in GDP. These figures are quite high in most developing countries, where agriculture employs more than half of the economically active population. Agriculture there is a way for extensive development, an increase of production achieved by the expansion of crop areas, livestock numbers increase, the increase in the number of people employed in agriculture. In countries whose economies are of the type of agricultural, low mechanization, chemicals, land reclamation, etc how to market agricultural
Reached the highest level of agriculture of developed countries in Europe and North America, entered the post-industrial stage. In agriculture, there is 2-6% of the economically active population employed. In these countries the "green revolution" occurred in the middle of the XX century, agriculture is characterized by a science-based organization, increased productivity, new technologies, systems, farm machinery, pesticides and fertilizers, the use of genetic engineering and biotechnology, robotics and electronics, that is, develops in an intensive way new agriculture products.
These progressive changes taking place in countries belonging to the type of industrial, but the level of intensification in them is still considerably lower and the share of employment in agriculture is higher than in post-industrial agricultural production africa. In the developed countries are experiencing a crisis of overproduction of food, agricultural and vice versa, one of the most pressing problem is the food problem (the problem of malnutrition and hunger) agricultural production.Industry and Regional Features
As a branch of the economy, agriculture has the following key features: The economic process of reproduction is interwoven with the natural process of growth and development of living organisms that develop on the basis of biological laws value of agricultural production. The cyclic in agriculture industry process of natural growth and development of plants and animals led to the seasonality of agricultural labor factors affecting agricultural. In contrast to the industrial production process in agriculture is closely linked with nature, where the ground serves as the main means of production.
The specialists of the FAO indicate that 78% of the earth's surface have serious natural constraints for development of agriculture, 13% of the area characterized by low productivity, an average 6% and 3% higher pictures of agricultural products. At present, plowed about 11% of the land, another 24% is used for grazing. Features agroresursnoy situation and specialization of agriculture vary considerably by region. Divided into several thermal zones, each characterized by a unique set of crop and livestock sectors:
The cold zone is an extensive area in northern Eurasia and North America. Agriculture is limited by the lack of heat and permafrost. Crop production is possible only in a protected ground, and the low productivity pastures develop reindeer herding value chain agricultural.
Cool Zone covers a vast territory of Eurasia and North America as well as a narrow strip of the southern Andes in South America. Scarce resources limit the heat range of crops that can be grown here (early maturing crops - gray bread, vegetables and some root vegetables, early potatoes). Agriculture has a focal character.
Temperate zone in the southern hemisphere is presented in Patagonia agricultural products company, on the coast of Chile, the island of Tasmania and New Zealand, and in the north occupies almost the whole of Europe import agricultural products(except for the southern peninsulas), south of Siberia and the Far East, Mongolia, Tibet, north-east China, south of Canada, north-eastern states of the United States. This is the belt mass agriculture. Arable land occupied almost all suitable for the agricultural plastic productsrelief of the territory, its specific area reaches up to 60-70%. Here, a wide agricultural production range of crops: wheat, barley, rye, oats, flax, potatoes, vegetables international trade agricultural, root crops, forage grasses factors of agricultural . In the southern part of the belt grows corn, sunflower, rice, grapes, fruit and fruit trees. Pastures are limited in size, they dominate in the mountains and arid zones, where development of transhumance and camel management of agricultural.Tea plantations on the island of Java agricultural products export
The warm subtropical zone corresponds to the geographical zone and is represented on all continents except Antarctica, he embraces the Mediterranean, most of the U.S., Mexico, Argentina, Chile, South Africa and Australia, South China. Here grow two crops a year agricultural production system: in winter - the culture of the temperate zone (grain, vegetables) in the summer - tropical annuals (cotton) or perennials (olive trees, citrus, tea, walnuts, figs, etc.). Is dominated by low-productivity, highly degraded from uncontrolled grazing pastures usa agricultural product.
The hot zone is vast expanses of Africa, South America, northern and central Australia, the Malay Archipelago, Arabian Peninsula, South Asia. Grown coffee and chocolate trees, date palm, sweet potatoes, cassava and others subarid zones are huge in area pastures with poor vegetation agricultural products prices.